Papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus, papillomavirus) is an oncogenic disease that manifests itself in the form of papillary formations (warts, warts) on human skin or in the genital area. Both men and women are almost equally vulnerable to the virus.
It is worth noting that an infection of this type may indicate the formation of a malignant tumor. Today, more than 100 species of this virus are known in medicine. About 30 of them affect only the female genitals.
The World Health Organization (WHO) has studied HPV - the human papillomavirus for short - and found that more than 60% of people on Earth are infected with it. In addition, some of them are only carriers, while in others it manifests itself in the form of papilloma of the skin, mucous membranes, but in some cases the human papillomavirus causes cell degeneration and cancer.
About 60% of the world's population is a potential carrier of human papillomavirus. In most cases, the virus is transmitted from a sick person to a healthy person. In addition, the triggers are:
- the onset of sexual activity at a young age.
- unprotected sex, frequent change of sexual partners.
- chronic inflammation in the genital area, infectious diseases of the urogenital system.
- frequent abortions;
- weak immunity;
- alcohol abuse?
- non-observance of the rules of personal hygiene.
As medical practice shows, women are at the main risk group. The chance of "catching" such a disease is quite high in people aged 20-45 years. That is, those who have an active sex life.
The symptoms of this type of infection depend on exactly what the trigger was. The disease does not have a single clinical picture. However, the following symptoms can be distinguished:
- the formation of warts;
- skin irritation in the genital area.
- discomfort during sexual intercourse.
- redness and partial itching.
At the same time, it is worth noting that symptoms in the form of skin irritation and itching may indicate another disease. Therefore, self-medication is not worth it in any case. With such symptoms, it is best to consult a dermatologist immediately.
Warts are more common in the following areas:
- on the skin of the palms, soles.
- in the genital area;
- in the oral cavity.
In more severe cases, this type of infection can develop in the cervix, bladder and vagina. The only way to get rid of warts is through surgery. Human papillomavirus infection in women can lead to cervical cancer. In men, the oncogenic factor is much less common.
It is also worth noting that in the early stages of development, a disease of this type of symptoms practically does not give. This is what often leads to an oncogenic risk factor for infection.
Virus infection is only possible if a healthy person has a minor genital injury. In this case, the papilloma virus enters the body of a healthy person and begins to grow.
The incubation period of an oncogenic virus type can last from several months to several years without any symptoms. In other words, an already infected person may be a carrier and not know it.
HPV in women
As already mentioned, women aged 20-45 are more vulnerable to the virus. But here it is worth noting that in the main risk group are those who frequently change sexual partners and have unprotected sex.
This type of infection in women is divided into the following groups:
- high oncogenicity.
- low oncogenicity.
- non-oncogenic type.
The most dangerous for women's health is an infection of a high type of oncogenicity. Almost always, it leads to cancer - a malignant tumor, cervical cancer. The risk of such a pathology developing is 90%. The condition is aggravated by the fact that in the early stages of development, the disease shows no symptoms. Occasionally, small warts may appear on the palms and soles of the feet.
With a type of high oncogenic infection, warts form. These are formations similar to warts, but with serrated edges. Such formations can occur in the vagina, anus, perineum. Sometimes warts can take the form of fluid bubbles, which eventually burst and give off an unpleasant odor.
A high type of HPV infection can also cause vaginal and vulvar cancer. In rarer clinical cases, nasopharyngeal cancer is possible. It should be noted that it is almost impossible to completely cure a high form of oncogenicity of HPV.
papilloma virus in men
Papillomavirus infection in men can occur without symptoms. It is worth noting that in the main risk group, men who frequently change sexual partner have unprotected sex.
The pathological formations are located in such places:
- on the head and shaft of the penis.
- on the skin of the scrotum;
- in the perineum;
- in the mucous membrane.
Such formations can be grouped. As a rule, they do not cause itching and other unpleasant sensations. Very rarely, it may be accompanied by itching or burning only during sexual intercourse.
A virus of this type in men can take the form of high oncogenicity. This leads to genital cancer. But, if you start treatment on time, then the risk of oncogenic diseases is minimized. Warts caused by the HPV virus are removed surgically or with special chemical solutions. In the process, antiviral drugs are prescribed. Therefore, in the early stages of the development of this type of disease in men, it can be completely eliminated.
The diagnosis of HPV infection consists of several stages. Initially, a doctor examines and clarifies the history. If the disease is suspected in women, then the initial examination should be done by a gynecologist. After that, the following tests can be prescribed:
- vaginal abrasion;
- vaginal tissue biopsy.
- PCR analysis.
The latter makes it possible not only to accurately determine the diagnosis, but also to determine the cause of the development of the pathological process, the form of its development. If there is a risk of developing oncological disease, then a general and biochemical blood test, organ research methods are also prescribed.
Colposcopy is mandatory if HPV infection is suspected. This is an examination of the cervix to detect profound pathological changes.
As for men, the diagnosis has about the same picture. After examination by a urologist or surgeon, he is referred for examination.
Only according to the results of the diagnosis, a competent doctor can prescribe the right course of treatment. The earlier the disease is diagnosed, the lower the risk of complications.
There is currently no drug in medicine that can intentionally kill the HPV virus. Therefore, the treatment is complex. Not only the form of the disease but also the cause of its occurrence is taken into account. It is also worth noting that a person who is ill or ill with the HPV virus should be examined regularly by the treating physician. Complete treatment of papillomavirus is possible only in the early stages. In any case, there is always the risk of developing cancer or malignancy. Avoiding the virus is easier than getting rid of it.
Treatment of papillomavirus infection can be conditionally divided into the following stages:
- wart or wart removal.
- drug treatment to prevent new formations.
- treatment aimed at strengthening the immune system.
It should be borne in mind that such a treatment plan is valid only if there is no risk of developing a malignant tumor or sexually transmitted infections. If the latter is confirmed, the treatment plan includes drugs to eradicate the underlying disease. Antiviral drugs are used in each case. In most cases, broad-spectrum drugs are prescribed. However, the use of such drugs does not rule out the recurrence of the disease.
It is much more difficult to cure the HPV virus if it has become chronic and has a high oncogenic factor. In this case, additional tests are prescribed and chemotherapy is used.
The treatment of human papillomavirus is possible only by a qualified specialist. Self-medication is unacceptable here, as the HPV virus is recognized as a carcinogen. Therefore, in most cases, it is quite difficult to cure. Even surgical removal of warts or genital warts does not preclude their re-formation.
Only a specialist can tell you how to deal with papillomavirus properly. The use of folk remedies for the treatment of HPV is not enough. Therefore, if symptoms of the disease are detected, you should seek competent medical help immediately.
One of the most effective preventative measures is vaccination against the virus. This makes it possible to prevent the growth in the body not only of HPV infection, but also of cervical cancer. In addition, the following rules must be observed:
- only protected sex.
- strengthening the immune system;
- regular examination by a gynecologist or urologist.
- personal hygiene.
You need to carefully monitor your health, not to abuse alcohol, smoking. In terms of intimate life, if possible, frequent change of sexual partners should be ruled out. With symptoms, you should consult a doctor immediately and do not self-medicate.